October  2019 50
研究論文Research Articles
公眾批評與記者抗爭:社交媒體時代新聞業的問責與自主之辯
Negotiation between Popular Criticism and Journalists’ Contention in the Social Media Age: Analyses on Two Media Criticism Actions in Contemporary China
  (369)
作者 李艷紅
Author Yanhong LI
關鍵詞 社交媒體、新聞業、自主、問責、媒介批評
Keywords social media, journalistic autonomy, accountability, media criticism
摘要 數字時代,大眾媒介批評的興起將如何形塑新聞專業的公共性?本文將這一問題放在有關新聞自主與問責的規範性理論之辯的脈絡下展開,並嘗試通過經驗觀察來探討。通過對2015年在中國大陸社交媒體平台上出現的兩個批評性言說行動的案例考察,研究發現:不同於「積極問責論」的良好願望,伴隨社交媒體興起的大眾媒介批評儘管一定程度體現了監督媒體的公民身份實踐,但未必成為正向的問責新聞業的力量,其問責的公共意義受限。原因是多方面的,既與商業力量對互聯網的滲透以及政府的顯性及隱性控制有關,也與公民媒介素養的不足有關。本文因此是對「積極問責論」的學術批評,但並非否定數字時代大眾媒介批評的積極意義,而是進一步提出,以大眾為主體的媒介批評行動是否能夠實現其公共問責的積極角色,主要取決於它所嵌入的公共領域的結構性特徵以及在這一領域中得到塑造的「問責文化」。
Abstract In the digital age, how will the rise of popular media criticism shape the journalism profession? This article puts this problem under the context of the theoretical debate between the normative theory of journalistic autonomy and that of accountability/responsibility, attempting to explore it through an empirical observation. Through a case study of two speech actions on media criticism occurring on the social media platform in mainland China in 2015, the study found that: contrary to the thesis of “positive accountability effect,” the popular media criticism does not necessarily become a positive force to shape the accountability of journalism, although to some extent they acted as media-monitoring citizenship practices. The public significance of these popular media criticism is limited in the two cases. The lack of media literacy and accountability culture in current Chinese society as well as the penetration of commercial power and the explicit and implicit control of the government on the internet all contributes to the limited effect. This article is a critique of the “positive accountability thesis,” however it does not deny the possible positive effect of popular media criticism, but further proposes a thesis that whether the media criticism enabled by the digital media can achieve its positive role in making journalism more accountable depends mainly on the media literacy of citizens on the one hand and the structural features of the public sphere in which it is embedded on the other hand.

本文引用格式﹕
李艷紅(2019)。〈公眾批評與記者抗爭:社交媒體時代新聞業的問責與自主之辯〉。《傳播與社會學刊》,第50期,頁27–58。

Citation of this article:
Li, Y. (2019). Negotiation between popular criticism and journalists’ contention in the social media age: Analyses on two media criticism actions in contemporary China. Communication & Society, 50, 27–58.
No.49  2019 July
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