January  2020 51
研究論文Research Articles
Design Efficiency in Negative Campaign Advertisements: Issue/Image Appeals, Unflattering Opponent Photographs or Caricatures, and Color Usage
作者 周軒逸、江彥廷
Author Hsuan-Yi CHOU, Yen-Ting CHIANG
關鍵詞 負面競選廣告、議題/形象訴求、醜化之對手照片或漫畫、廣告色調、解釋水平理論
Keywords negative campaign advertisements, issue/image appeals, unflattering opponent photographs or caricatures, color usage, construal level theory
摘要 在台灣以及其他民主國家的選舉裡,負面競選廣告的使用頻繁,策略性地使用負面競選廣告,可影響選民對於競爭對手的態度反應,究竟要攻擊對手的議題或形象,備受學界和業界的關注;此外,許多負面廣告中的主色調選擇以黑白呈現,且廣告中會搭配醜化對手的真人照片或漫畫肖像,然而過去研究鮮少討論這些廣告設計的作用。本研究結合解釋水平理論、訊息適配及情緒之觀點,探討負面競選廣告的廣告色調,如何個別干擾文字訴求主題以及醜化對手之人物肖像的廣告效果。以2016年台灣總統大選為情境,兩個實驗的結果發現:當廣告色調為黑白時,使用形象攻擊、漫畫肖像,較有助降低選民對於被攻擊候選人的態度與投票意願;廣告色調為彩色時,使用議題攻擊、真人肖像,較有助降低選民對於被攻擊候選人的態度與投票意願。研究成果擴大負面競選廣告的研究面向、深化解釋水平理論於政治傳播領域的應用,並在選舉實務上提供候選人與競選團隊關於廣告內容設計及色調選擇的建議。
Abstract In elections in Taiwan and other democracies, the use of negative campaign advertising is on the rise. The strategic use of negative campaign advertising can have great influences on voters’ attitudinal responses towards the competing candidates. Therefore, further research into the impact of a candidate’s selective attacks on an opponent’s positions and image on voters’ attitudinal responses toward the attacker and the attacked opponent is important for both theorists and practitioners. Many negative campaign advertisements frequently use black and white (with very little or no color) in advertisement design and attempt to vilify the opponent using ludicrous, unflattering photographs or caricatures. However, few studies have examined the effects of these different advertisement design elements on voters’ attitudinal responses. Drawing on construal level theory, message match-up, and emotion studies, this study explores how the use of color in attack advertisements (advertisements that were primarily black-and-white versus those that were more colorful) separately moderated the relative effect on voters’ attitudinal responses between the following elements: targeting the opponent candidate’s positions versus image, and using unflattering opponent candidate’s photographs versus caricatures. Two experiments were conducted during the 2016 presidential election in Taiwan. Analytical results revealed that black-and-white advertisements that attacked the opponent’s image (versus his or her stance on an issue) and used unflattering opponent caricatures (versus photographs) were more effective in generating negative voter attitudes and voting intentions towards the opponent, and colorful advertisements that attacked issue stances (versus image) and used unflattering opponent photographs (versus caricatures) were also more effective in generating negative voter attitudes and voting intentions towards the opponent. The findings expand the research scope on negative campaign advertising, broaden the application of construal level theory to political communications, and provide recommendations on designing effective negative campaign advertisements with suitable message content and the effective use of color.



Citation of this article:

Chou, H. Y., & Chiang, Y. T. (2020). Design efficiency in negative campaign advertisements: Issue/image appeals, unflattering opponent photographs or caricatures, and color usage. Communication & Society, 51, 141–198.
No.66  2023 October
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